|Titre de l’article||Sleep and depressive symptoms - Is there a longitudinal relationship in adolescence?|
|Forme de présentation||Poster|
Sleep disruption (e.g. difficulty falling or staying asleep or waking up too early) is common in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), and disrupted sleep has been shown to be a risk factor for the onset of mental health problems, including depression. The aim of the present study was to assess the temporal association between sleep and depressive symptoms in a sample of un-medicated adolescents with and without MDD using a longitudinal design.
Twenty-nine adolescents with and without MDD between the age of 14 and 17 years (mean 15.1 years, SD = 1.7; 17 females; 11 with MDD) were included in the present study. For a 12-month period, participants wore an actigraph continuously and filled out questionnaires once per month via a secure online platform. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the sum score of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). A cross-lagged panel design was used to assess the longitudinal relationship between sleep and depressive symptoms. One model was run for each of the following sleep measures: sleep onset latency (SOL); wake after sleep onset (WASO); total sleep time (TST) measured via actigraphy and the PSQI.
The relation between depressive symptoms and subjective as well as objective sleep measures was bi-directional with depression levels in the past month being a predictor for objectively (β = 0.53 , p < .001) and subjectively (β = 0.02, p < .05) measured TST in the following month. Depressive symptoms in the past month also predicted subjective SOL (β = 0.03, p < .001) and subjective sleep quality (β = 0.02 , p < .001) in the following month. Conversely, objectively (β = 0.27, p < .05) and subjectively (β = 0.48, p < .001) measured SOL in the past month was a predictor for depressive symptoms in the following month.
In many cases, sleep disturbances are viewed as a symptom or a consequence of a mental illness and are treated as such. Using a longitudinal approach, our findings show a bi-directional relationship between depression and sleep in adolescents where sleep problems are a risk factor for mental health problems and mental health problems in turn exacerbate sleep difficulties.